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Validation

Vapor provides a few different ways to validate data coming into your application. Let's start by looking at the most common.

Common Usage

Several useful convenience validators are included by default. You can use these to validate data coming into your application, or combine them and create your own.

Let's look at the most common way to validate data.

class Employee {
    var email: Valid<Email>
    var name: Valid<Name>

    init(request: Request) throws {
        name = try request.data["name"].validated()
        email = try request.data["email"].validated()
    }
}

Here we have a typical Employee model with an email and name property. By declaring both of these properties as Valid<>, you are ensuring that these properties can only ever contain valid data. The Swift type checking system will prevent anything that does not pass validation from being stored.

To store something in a Valid<> property, you must use the .validated() method. This is available for any data returned by request.data.

Email is a real validator included with Vapor, but Name is not. Let's take a look at how you can create a Validator.

Valid<OnlyAlphanumeric>
Valid<Email>
Valid<Unique<T>>
Valid<Matches<T>>
Valid<In<T>>
Valid<Contains<T>>
Valid<Count<T>>

Validators vs. ValidationSuites

Validators, like Count or Contains can have multiple configurations. For example:

let name: Valid<Count<String>> = try "Vapor".validated(by: Count.max(5))

Here we are validating that the String is at most 5 characters long. The type of Valid<Count> tells us that the string has been validated to be a certain count, but it does not tell us exactly what that count was. The string could have been validated to be less than three characters or more than one million.

Because of this, Validators themselves are not as type safe as some applications might desire. ValidationSuites fix this. They combine multiple Validators and/or ValidationSuites together to represent exactly what type of data should be considered valid.

Custom Validator

Here is how to create a custom ValidationSuite.

class Name: ValidationSuite {
    static func validate(input value: String) throws {
        let evaluation = OnlyAlphanumeric.self
            && Count.min(5)
            && Count.max(20)

        try evaluation.validate(input: value)
    }
}

You only have to implement one method. In this method, use any other validators or logic to create your custom validator. Here we are defining a Name as only accepting alphanumeric Strings that are between 5 and 20 characters.

Now we can be sure that anything of type Valid<Name> follows these rules.

Combining Validators

In the Name validator, you can see that && is being used to combine validators. You can use && as well as || to combine any validator as you would boolean values with an if statement.

You can also use ! to invert the validator.

let symbols = input.validated(by: !OnlyAlphanumeric.self)

Testing Validity

While validated() throw is the most common method for validating, there are two others.

let passed = input.passes(Count.min(5))
let valid = try input.tested(Count.min(5))

passes() returns a boolean indicating whether or not the test passed. tested() will throw if the validation does not pass. But unlike validated() which returns a Valid<> type, tested() returns the original type of the item it was called on.

Validation Failures

Vapor will automatically catch validation failures in the ValidationMiddleware. But you can catch them on your own, or customize responses for certain types of failures.

do {
    //validation here
} catch let error as ValidationErrorProtocol {
    print(error.message)
}