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Migrations are like a version control system for your database. Each migration defines a change to the database and how to undo it. By modifying your database through migrations, you create a consistent, testable, and shareable way to evolve your databases over time.

// An example migration.
struct MyMigration: Migration {
    func prepare(on database: Database) -> EventLoopFuture<Void> {
        // Make a change to the database.

    func revert(on database: Database) -> EventLoopFuture<Void> {
        // Undo the change made in `prepare`, if possible.

If you're using async/await you should implement the AsyncMigration protocol:

struct MyMigration: AsyncMigration {
    func prepare(on database: Database) async throws {
        // Make a change to the database.

    func revert(on database: Database) async throws {
        // Undo the change made in `prepare`, if possible.

The prepare method is where you make changes to the supplied Database. These could be changes to the database schema like adding or removing a table or collection, field, or constraint. They could also modify the database content, like creating new model instances, updating field values, or doing cleanup.

The revert method is where you undo these changes, if possible. Being able to undo migrations can make prototyping and testing easier. They also give you a backup plan if a deploy to production doesn't go as planned.


Migrations are registered to your application using app.migrations.

import Fluent
import Vapor


You can add a migration to a specific database using the to parameter, otherwise the default database will be used.

app.migrations.add(MyMigration(), to: .myDatabase)

Migrations should be listed in order of dependency. For example, if MigrationB depends on MigrationA, it should be added to app.migrations second.


To migrate your database, run the migrate command.

swift run App migrate

You can also run this command through Xcode. The migrate command will check the database to see if any new migrations have been registered since it was last run. If there are new migrations, it will ask for a confirmation before running them.


To undo a migration on your database, run migrate with the --revert flag.

swift run App migrate --revert

The command will check the database to see which batch of migrations was last run and ask for a confirmation before reverting them.

Auto Migrate

If you would like migrations to run automatically before running other commands, you can pass the --auto-migrate flag.

swift run App serve --auto-migrate

You can also do this programatically.

try app.autoMigrate().wait()

// or
try await app.autoMigrate()

Both of these options exist for reverting as well: --auto-revert and app.autoRevert().

Next Steps

Take a look at the schema builder and query builder guides for more information about what to put inside your migrations.