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Models represent data stored in tables or collections in your database. Models have one or more fields that store codable values. All models have a unique identifier. Property wrappers are used to denote identifiers, fields, and relations.

Below is an example of a simple model with one field. Note that models do not describe the entire database schema, such as constraints, indexes, and foreign keys. Schemas are defined in migrations. Models are focused on representing the data stored in your database schemas.

final class Planet: Model {
    // Name of the table or collection.
    static let schema = "planets"

    // Unique identifier for this Planet.
    @ID(key: .id)
    var id: UUID?

    // The Planet's name.
    @Field(key: "name")
    var name: String

    // Creates a new, empty Planet.
    init() { }

    // Creates a new Planet with all properties set.
    init(id: UUID? = nil, name: String) { = id = name


All models require a static, get-only schema property. This string references the name of the table or collection this model represents.

final class Planet: Model {
    // Name of the table or collection.
    static let schema = "planets"

When querying this model, data will be fetched from and stored to the schema named "planets".


The schema name is typically the class name pluralized and lowercased.


All models must have an id property defined using the @ID property wrapper. This field uniquely identifies instances of your model.

final class Planet: Model {
    // Unique identifier for this Planet.
    @ID(key: .id)
    var id: UUID?

By default, the @ID property should use the special .id key which resolves to an appropriate key for the underlying database driver. For SQL this is "id" and for NoSQL it is "_id".

The @ID should also be of type UUID. This is the only identifier value currently supported by all database drivers. Fluent will automatically generate new UUID identifiers when models are created.

@ID has an optional value since unsaved models may not have an identifier yet. To get the identifier or throw an error, use requireID.

let id = try planet.requireID()


@ID has an exists property that represents whether the model exists in the database or not. When you initialize a model, the value is false. After you save a model or when you fetch a model from the database, the value is true. This property is mutable.

if planet.$id.exists {
    // This model exists in database.

Custom Identifier

Fluent supports custom identifier keys and types using the @ID(custom:) overload.

final class Planet: Model {
    // Unique identifier for this Planet.
    @ID(custom: "foo")
    var id: Int?

The above example uses an @ID with custom key "foo" and identifier type Int. This is compatible with SQL databases using auto-incrementing primary keys, but is not compatible with NoSQL.

Custom @IDs allow the user to specify how the identifier should be generated using the generatedBy parameter.

@ID(custom: "foo", generatedBy: .user)

The generatedBy parameter supports these cases:

Generated By Description
.user @ID property is expected to be set before saving a new model.
.random @ID value type must conform to RandomGeneratable.
.database Database is expected to generate a value upon save.

If the generatedBy parameter is omitted, Fluent will attempt to infer an appropriate case based on the @ID value type. For example, Int will default to .database generation unless otherwise specified.


Models must have an empty initializer method.

final class Planet: Model {
    // Creates a new, empty Planet.
    init() { }

Fluent requires this method internally to initialize models returned by queries. It is also used for reflection.

You may want to add a convenience initializer to your model that accepts all properties.

final class Planet: Model {
    // Creates a new Planet with all properties set.
    init(id: UUID? = nil, name: String) { = id = name

Using convenience initializers makes it easier to add new properties to the model in the future.


Models can have zero or more @Field properties for storing data.

final class Planet: Model {
    // The Planet's name.
    @Field(key: "name")
    var name: String

Fields require the database key to be explicitly defined. This is not required to be the same as the property name.


Fluent recommends using snake_case for database keys and camelCase for property names.

Field values can be any type that conforms to Codable. Storing nested structures and arrays in @Field is supported, but filtering operations are limited. See @Group for an alternative.

For fields that contain an optional value, use @OptionalField.

@OptionalField(key: "tag")
var tag: String?


Models can have zero or more relation properties referencing other models like @Parent, @Children, and @Siblings. Learn more about relations in the relations section.


@Timestamp is a special type of @Field that stores a Foundation.Date. Timestamps are set automatically by Fluent according to the chosen trigger.

final class Planet: Model {
    // When this Planet was created.
    @Timestamp(key: "created_at", on: .create)
    var createdAt: Date?

    // When this Planet was last updated.
    @Timestamp(key: "updated_at", on: .update)
    var updatedAt: Date?

@Timestamp supports the following triggers.

Trigger Description
.create Set when a new model instance is saved to the database.
.update Set when an existing model instance is saved to the database.
.delete Set when a model is deleted from the database. See soft delete.

@Timestamp's date value is optional and should be set to nil when initializing a new model.

Timestamp Format

By default, @Timestamp will use an efficient datetime encoding based on your database driver. You can customize how the timestamp is stored in the database using the format parameter.

// Stores an ISO 8601 formatted timestamp representing
// when this model was last updated.
@Timestamp(key: "updated_at", on: .update, format: .iso8601)
var updatedAt: Date?

Available timestamp formats are listed below.

Format Description Type
.default Uses efficient datetime encoding for specific database. Date
.iso8601 ISO 8601 string. Supports withMilliseconds parameter. String
.unix Seconds since Unix epoch including fraction. Double

You can access the raw timestamp value directly using the timestamp property.

// Manually set the timestamp value on this ISO 8601
// formatted @Timestamp.
model.$updatedAt.timestamp = "2020-06-03T16:20:14+00:00"

Soft Delete

Adding a @Timestamp that uses the .delete trigger to your model will enable soft-deletion.

final class Planet: Model {
    // When this Planet was deleted.
    @Timestamp(key: "deleted_at", on: .delete)
    var deletedAt: Date?

Soft-deleted models still exist in the database after deletion, but will not be returned in queries.


You can manually set an on delete timestamp to a date in the future. This can be used as an expiration date.

To force a soft-deletable model to be removed from the database, use the force parameter in delete.

// Deletes from the database even if the model 
// is soft deletable. 
model.delete(force: true, on: database)

To restore a soft-deleted model, use the restore method.

// Clears the on delete timestamp allowing this 
// model to be returned in queries. 
model.restore(on: database)

To include soft-deleted models in a query, use withDeleted.

// Fetches all planets including soft deleted.
Planet.query(on: database).withDeleted().all()


@Enum is a special type of @Field for storing string representable types as native database enums. Native database enums provide an added layer of type safety to your database and may be more performant than raw enums.

// String representable, Codable enum for animal types.
enum Animal: String, Codable {
    case dog, cat

final class Pet: Model {
    // Stores type of animal as a native database enum.
    @Enum(key: "type")
    var type: Animal

Only types conforming to RawRepresentable where RawValue is String are compatible with @Enum. String backed enums meet this requirement by default.

To store an optional enum, use @OptionalEnum.

The database must be prepared to handle enums via a migration. See enum for more information.

Raw Enums

Any enum backed by a Codable type, like String or Int, can be stored in @Field. It will be stored in the database as the raw value.


@Group allows you to store a nested group of fields as a single property on your model. Unlike Codable structs stored in a @Field, the fields in a @Group are queryable. Fluent achieves this by storing @Group as a flat structure in the database.

To use a @Group, first define the nested structure you would like to store using the Fields protocol. This is very similar to Model except no identifier or schema name is required. You can store many properties here that Model supports like @Field, @Enum, or even another @Group.

// A pet with name and animal type.
final class Pet: Fields {
    // The pet's name.
    @Field(key: "name")
    var name: String

    // The type of pet. 
    @Field(key: "type")
    var type: String

    // Creates a new, empty Pet.
    init() { }

After you've created the fields definition, you can use it as the value of a @Group property.

final class User: Model {
    // The user's nested pet.
    @Group(key: "pet")
    var pet: Pet

A @Group's fields are accessible via dot-syntax.

let user: User = ...
print( // String

You can query nested fields like normal using dot-syntax on the property wrappers.

User.query(on: database).filter(\.$pet.$name == "Zizek").all()

In the database, @Group is stored as a flat structure with keys joined by _. Below is an example of how User would look in the database.

id name pet_name pet_type
1 Tanner Zizek Cat
2 Logan Runa Dog


Models conform to Codable by default. This means you can use your models with Vapor's content API by adding conformance to the Content protocol.

extension Planet: Content { }

app.get("planets") { req in 
    // Return an array of all planets.
    Planet.query(on: req.db).all()

When serializing to / from Codable, model properties will use their variable names instead of keys. Relations will serialize as nested structures and any eager loaded data will be included.

Data Transfer Object

Model's default Codable conformance can make simple usage and prototyping easier. However, it is not suitable for every use case. For certain situations you will need to use a data transfer object (DTO).


A DTO is a separate Codable type representing the data structure you would like to encode or decode.

Assume the following User model in the upcoming examples.

// Abridged user model for reference.
final class User: Model {
    @ID(key: .id)
    var id: UUID?

    @Field(key: "first_name")
    var firstName: String

    @Field(key: "last_name")
    var lastName: String

One common use case for DTOs is in implementing PATCH requests. These requests only include values for fields that should be updated. Attempting to decode a Model directly from such a request would fail if any of the required fields were missing. In the example below, you can see a DTO being used to decode request data and update a model.

// Structure of PATCH /users/:id request.
struct PatchUser: Decodable {
    var firstName: String?
    var lastName: String?

app.patch("users", ":id") { req in 
    // Decode the request data.
    let patch = try req.content.decode(PatchUser.self)
    // Fetch the desired user from the database.
    return User.find(req.parameters.get("id"), on: req.db)
        .unwrap(or: Abort(.notFound))
    { user in
        // If first name was supplied, update it.
        if let firstName = patch.firstName {
            user.firstName = firstName
        // If new last name was supplied, update it.
        if let lastName = patch.lastName {
            user.lastName = lastName
        // Save the user and return it.
        return req.db)
            .transform(to: user)

Another common use case for DTOs is customizing the format of your API responses. The example below shows how a DTO can be used to add a computed field to a response.

// Structure of GET /users response.
struct GetUser: Content {
    var id: UUID
    var name: String

app.get("users") { req in 
    // Fetch all users from the database.
    User.query(on: req.db).all().flatMapThrowing { users in
        try { user in
            // Convert each user to GET return type.
            try GetUser(
                id: user.requireID(),
                name: "\(user.firstName) \(user.lastName)"

Even if the DTO's structure is identical to model's Codable conformance, having it as a separate type can help keep large projects tidy. If you ever need to make a change to your models properties, you don't have to worry about breaking your app's public API. You may also consider putting your DTOs in a separate package that can be shared with consumers of your API.

For these reasons, we highly recommend using DTOs wherever possible, especially for large projects.


The ModelAlias protocol lets you uniquely identify a model being joined multiple times in a query. For more information, see joins.


To save a model to the database, use the save(on:) method. database)

This method will call create or update internally depending on whether the model already exists in the database.


You can call the create method to save a new model to the database.

let planet = Planet(name: "Earth")
planet.create(on: database)

create is also available on an array of models. This saves all of the models to the database in a single batch / query.

// Example of batch create.
[earth, mars].create(on: database)


You can call the update method to save a model that was fetched from the database.

Planet.find(..., on: database).flatMap { planet in = "Earth"
    return planet.update(on: database)


Models expose a static method query(on:) that returns a query builder.

Planet.query(on: database).all()

Learn more about querying in the query section.


Models have a static find(_:on:) method for looking up a model instance by identifier.

Planet.find(req.parameters.get("id"), on: database)

This method returns nil if no model with that identifier was found.


Model middleware allow you to hook into your model's lifecycle events. The following lifecycle events are supported.

Method Description
create Runs before a model is created.
update Runs before a model is updated.
delete(force:) Runs before a model is deleted.
softDelete Runs before a model is soft deleted.
restore Runs before a model is restored (opposite of soft delete).

Model middleware are declared using the ModelMiddleware protocol. All lifecycle methods have a default implementation, so you only need to implement the methods you require. Each method accepts the model in question, a reference to the database, and the next action in the chain. The middleware can choose to return early, throw an error, or call the next action to continue normally.

Using these methods you can perform actions both before and after the specific event completes. Performing actions after the event completes can be done by mapping the future returned from the next responder.

// Example middleware that capitalizes names.
struct PlanetMiddleware: ModelMiddleware {
    func create(model: Planet, on db: Database, next: AnyModelResponder) -> EventLoopFuture<Void> {
        // The model can be altered here before it is created. =
        return next.create(model, on: db).map {
            // Once the planet has been created, the code 
            // here will be executed.
            print ("Planet \( was created")

Once you have created your middleware, you can enable it using app.databases.middleware.

// Example of configuring model middleware.
app.databases.middleware.use(PlanetMiddleware(), on: .psql)